'Wake-Up' Cigarette May Raise Risk for Lung, Mouth Cancers
FRIDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- People who smoke a cigarette
as soon as they wake up in the morning are more likely to develop
lung and oral cancer than other smokers, a new study reveals.
Penn State researchers analyzed data from nearly 2,000 adult
smokers who took part in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey. The participants provided blood samples and
information about their smoking behavior.
The investigators found that about 32 percent of the
participants smoked their first cigarette of the day within five
minutes of waking. Among the others, 31 percent smoked within 6 to
30 minutes, 18 percent smoked within 31 to 60 minutes, and 19
percent smoked more than an hour after waking.
People who had a cigarette immediately after waking had higher
levels of NNAL -- a byproduct of a tobacco-specific cancer-causing
substance called NNK -- in their blood than those who smoked a half
hour or more after waking, regardless of how many cigarettes they
smoked in a day, the study authors reported.
The research team also found that NNAL levels in the
participants' blood was also associated with factors such as their
age, their gender, the age they started smoking, and whether or not
another smoker lived in their home.
"Most importantly, we found that NNAL level was highest among
people who smoked the soonest upon waking, regardless of the
frequency of smoking and other factors that predict NNAL
concentrations," study co-author Steven Branstetter, an assistant
professor of biobehavioral health, said in a Penn State news
"We believe these people who smoke sooner after waking inhale
more deeply and more thoroughly, which could explain the higher
levels of NNAL in their blood, as well as their higher risk of
developing oral or lung cancer," he added. "As a result, time to
first cigarette might be an important factor in the identification
of high-risk smokers and in the development of interventions
targeted toward early morning smokers."
The study was published in the March 29 issue of the journal
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention.
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