Dizziness, Nonvertigo
En Español (Spanish Version)

Definition
Dizziness may cause you to feel light-headed or weak. You may feel like you are going to faint. Dizziness can happen for a short period or be a long-lasting condition that gets in the way of your daily activities. It is different from vertigo, which is a feeling that the room is spinning or rotating while you are still.

Causes
Many conditions can cause dizziness such as:

Prescription medications can also cause dizziness. These may include:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Nitrates
  • Antipsychotics
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Blood Flow to the Brain

In some cases, dizziness may be due to decreased blood flow to the brain.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors
Dizziness is a symptom that may be caused by another condition. There are no specific risk factors for dizziness.

Symptoms
Symptoms depend on the type of dizziness you have. Common symptoms include:

  • Lightheadedness
  • Imbalance
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Headache
  • Vision or hearing problems
  • Heart palpitations
When Should I Call My Doctor?
Call your doctor if you have:

  • Dizziness that increases or gets worse
  • Signs of an infection such as fever or chills
  • Concern that your medication may be causing dizziness
  • Hearing loss
  • A headache that occurs with dizziness
  • Other symptoms in addition to dizziness
When Should I Call for Medical Help Immediately?
Call for medical help or go to the emergency room right away if you have:

  • A head injury
  • Rapid, irregular heartbeat, or chest pain
  • High fever
Look for and know the signs of stroke. These may include:

  • Face drooping—one side of the face is numb or drooping
  • Arm weakness—one arm is numb, weak, or drifts downward when trying to raise it up
  • Speech difficulty—includes slurring, inability to speak, or inability to repeat a simple sentence
  • Leg numbness or weakness
  • Confusion or difficulty understanding
  • Difficulty walking
  • Loss of balance
  • Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
Diagnosis
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Your bodily fluid may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood tests
  • Blood pressure measurements
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:

The electrical activity of your heart may be tested. This can be done with an electrocardiogram (ECG).

Other tests may include:

Treatment
Treatment depends on the cause of the dizziness. If your dizziness is caused by a condition, the treatment may help reduce symptoms. Examples include:

CauseTreatmentOrthostatic hypotensionMedication, lifestyle, and dietary changesMotion sicknessMedication and lifestyle changesAnxiety disorder or other mental health conditionTherapy and medicationInfectionAntibiotic or antiviral medicationDizziness due to medication that you are takingChanges to your medicationImbalancePhysical therapy to build strength and balance
Home Care and Lifestyle Changes
To avoid injuries, make these lifestyle changes:

  • If you are feeling dizzy, sit down right away. Also, avoid activities that could cause harm such as driving, using machinery, or climbing a ladder.
  • Remove items in your home that could cause you to lose your balance such as throw rugs and loose electrical cords.
  • Place slip-resistant mats in your shower and on your bathroom floor.
  • Place night lights in hallways and in the bathroom.
  • Use a cane if you feel that you need extra support.
Prevention
Try these tips to prevent dizziness:

  • Avoid sudden movements.
  • Avoid bending down or extending your neck.
  • Avoid smoking, drinking excess amounts of alcohol, and using illicit drugs.
  • Maintain proper treatment for long-term conditions.
  • Get treatment when you have an infection.
  • Talk to your doctor right away if you have side effects from your medications.



RESOURCES:
FamilyDoctor.org - American Academy of Family Physicians

Vestibular Disorders Association

CANADIAN RESOURCES:
Balance and Dizziness Disorders Society


References:
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated January 14, 2013. Updated November 21, 2013. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Dizziness and motion sickness. American Academy of Otolaryngology website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/HealthInformation/dizzinessMotionSickness.cfm. Updated December 2010. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Dizziness-differential diagnosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 16, 2011. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Stroke warning signs and symptoms. American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/WarningSigns/Stroke-Warning-Signs-and-Symptoms_UCM_308528_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Last Reviewed February 2014



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