Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
En Español (Spanish Version)

Definition
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease involves the build-up of fat in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol. It is a common condition. NAFLD may not cause any problems if it is mild. In some cases, it can cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. If this is severe, it can cause liver failure.

The Liver

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Causes
When the liver is unable to break down fats, they build up in liver tissue. Many conditions and diseases make it difficult for the liver to break down fats.

Risk Factors
NAFLD is more common in men and with increasing age. Other factors that increase your chance of developing NAFLD include:

Symptoms
This disease often causes no symptoms. If fatty build-up is causing the liver not to function well, you may have symptoms. Symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Pain in the upper right side of the abdomen
  • Muscle weakness
  • Jaundice
  • Itchy skin
  • Lack of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea
Diagnosis
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Tests may include:

  • Blood tests—to look for raised liver enzymes
  • Ultrasound—a test that uses sound waves to examine the liver
  • CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the abdomen
  • Liver biopsy —a small piece of your liver is removed and examined
Treatment
Treatment focuses on the factors that are causing fatty liver disease. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment may focus on avoiding certain medications, chemicals, or lifestyle factors that can damage your liver.

Weight Loss
Weight loss of 10% of a person's body weight has been shown to cure the disease. If you are overweight, your doctor may recommend weight loss through:

  • Healthy eating
  • Exercise
  • Behavioral therapy
  • Medication
  • Bariatric surgery in serious cases
Medications
Your doctor may recommend medications to control the condition causing NAFLD.

Prevention
To reduce your chance of getting fatty liver disease, take the following steps:

  • Maintain a healthy weight by eating a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables , whole grains, and unsaturated fats.
  • Get at least 30 minutes of daily exercise.
  • Manage other medical conditions as directed by your doctor.



RESOURCES:
American Gastroenterological Association

American Liver Foundation

CANADIAN RESOURCES:
The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

Canadian Liver Foundation

References:
Bayard M, Holt J, Boroughs E. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am Fam Physician . 2006;73(11):1961-1968.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. American Liver Foundation website. Available at: http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/nafld . Updated October 4, 2011. Accessed May 14, 2013.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated November 9, 2012. Accessed May 14, 2013.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/nash . Updated April 30, 2012. Accessed May 14, 2013.

1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Zaman A. Promote weight loss in patients with NAFLD. NEJM Journal Watch. Published September 24, 2013. Accessed October 1, 2013.

Last Reviewed June 2013



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