Low-Sodium Diet
En Español (Spanish Version)

What Is a Low-Sodium Diet?
A low-sodium diet restricts the amount of sodium (salt) in your diet. On this diet, you should aim to consume no more than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium per day. This is the amount in about one teaspoon of table salt.

Sodium is a mineral found in many foods. Most people consume much more sodium than they need. Diets high in sodium can increase blood pressure. A high-sodium diet may increase your risk of stroke . Reducing your sodium intake may help lower blood pressure.

What Foods Are Highest in Sodium?
Foods highest in sodium include table salt (about 50% sodium), convenience foods, preserved foods, and processed foods. Examples of processed foods include:
  • Canned foods
  • Frozen dinners
  • Snack food
  • Packaged starchy foods (eg, seasoned rice, instant mashed potatoes, macaroni and cheese)
  • Baking mixes
  • Deli meats and cheeses
  • Sausages and cured or smoked meats

Food Choices on a Low-Sodium Diet
Grains
Recommended foods:

  • Breads and rolls without salted tops
  • Ready-to-eat and uncooked cereals (with less than 5% Daily Value [DV] for sodium)
  • Muffins
  • Unsalted crackers and breadsticks
  • Low-sodium or homemade breadcrumbs or stuffing
  • Rice, pasta, bulgur, couscous (prepared without salt)
Foods to avoid:

  • Breads, rolls, and crackers with salted tops
  • Quick breads, self-rising flour, and biscuit mixes
  • Regular bread crumbs
  • Instant hot cereals
  • Commercially prepared rice, pasta, or stuffing mixes
Vegetables
Recommended foods:

  • All fresh vegetables
  • Frozen and canned vegetables without added salt
  • Low-sodium vegetable juices
Foods to avoid:

  • Regular canned vegetables and juices
  • Sauerkraut
  • Frozen vegetables with sauces
  • Commercially prepared potato and vegetable mixes
Fruits
Recommended foods:

  • Fresh, frozen, and canned juices
  • Fruit juices
Foods to avoid:

  • None
Milk
Recommended foods:

  • Milk
  • Yogurt
  • Hard cheeses (including Swiss, cheddar, and Monterey Jack)
  • Low-sodium cheeses (including ricotta, cream cheese, and mozzarella)
  • Ice cream
Foods to avoid:

  • Processed cheese, cottage cheese, cheese spreads, and sauces
  • Buttermilk
Meats and Beans
Recommended foods:

  • Fresh or frozen beef, lamb, pork, poultry, fish, and shellfish
  • Eggs and egg substitutes
  • Low-sodium peanut butter
  • Dried peas and beans
  • Unsalted nuts
Foods to avoid:

  • Smoked, cured, salted, or canned meat, fish, or poultry (including bacon, cold cuts, frankfurters, sausages, sardines, and anchovies)
  • Frozen, breaded meats
  • Salted nuts
Fats and Oils
Recommended foods:

  • Low-sodium or unsalted butter and margarine spreads
  • Low-sodium salad dressings made with oil
Foods to avoid:

  • Oil mixed with other, high-sodium ingredients (eg, salad dressing)
Snacks, Sweets, and Condiments
Recommended foods:

  • Low-sodium or unsalted versions of broths, soups, soy sauce, condiments, and snack foods
  • Pepper, herbs, spices, vinegar, lemon, or lime juice
  • Ice cream, sherbet, homemade pie, and pudding without added salt
Foods to avoid:

  • Broth, soups, gravies, and sauces made from instant mixes or other high-sodium ingredients
  • Salted snack foods
  • Olives
  • Meat tenderizers, seasoning salt, and most flavored vinegars
  • Commercial dessert mixes, cake, pie, instant pudding
Beverages
Recommended beverages:

  • Most beverages
Beverages to avoid:

  • Commercially softened water
Suggestions
  • Include a lot of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables in your diet. Whenever possible, choose whole foods over processed foods.
  • Read food labels. Look for products marked as:
    • Sodium-free
    • Very low-sodium
    • Low-sodium
    • No added salt
    • Unsalted
  • Skip the salt when cooking or at the table. If food needs more flavor, be creative. Try different herbs and spices. Garlic and onion also add a lot of flavor to foods.
  • Avoid fast food and convenience food. They generally have a lot of added salt.
  • Talk to a registered dietitian for individualized diet advice.



RESOURCES:
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

American Heart Association

CANADIAN RESOURCES:
Dietitians of Canada

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

References:
Guidelines for a low sodium diet. UCSF Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.ucsfhealth.org/education/guidelines_for_a_low_sodium_diet/. Accessed May 8, 2014.

How to follow a low-sodium diet. Heart Failure Society of America website. Available at: http://www.hfsa.org/pdf/module2.pdf. Published 2002. Accessed May 8, 2014.

Last Reviewed March 2014



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