Food Additives: Friends or Foes?En Español (Spanish Version)
Food additives are often vilified in the press. Some have been linked with allergies, behavior problems, and an increased risk of cancer. This has led many people to attempt to avoid them and seek additive-free food when possible. But do food additives really deserve all this bad press?
There are two types of food additives. Direct additives are added directly to food during its preparation. Indirect additives are substances that may slowly leach into food during its processing, or packaging.
Examples of Food AdditivesSaltSugarGumsVinegarMineralsFlavoringsVitaminsVariety of chemicalsHigh fructose corn syrupSynthetic and natural coloringsBaking powder and sodaHydrogenated vegetable oil
Food additives serve a wide variety of purposes, such as:
- Providing flavoring and/or sweetness
- Preserving foods
- Slowing spoilage
- Leavening baked goods
- Preventing fats from separating
- Preventing caking of powdered or granulated substances
- Increasing the food’s nutritional value
- Preventing fresh fruits from turning brown
- Sharpening flavors or colors
- Controlling the acidity or alkalinity of foods
No. Food additives are not all bad. The use of these additives can improve food safety and flavor, help make food quality more consistent, and add nutritional value.
Yes. Some people are sensitive, or even allergic to certain food additives. Some may notice stomach upset, headaches,
, runny nose, sneezing, or wheezing after exposure to a particular additive. In the worst case scenario, a person may have an
to an additive. Anaphylactic reactions usually include swelling, itching, low blood pressure, and difficulty breathing. It can develop rapidly and be life-threatening.
Yes. Some additives should be avoided. Others need only to be limited by most people. The following table outlines some of the claimed risks and side effects of these common food additives. It is important to note that many of these issues are controversial. Some problems are not widely accepted by the scientific community. The recommendations below are from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI). Also listed is information from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Name of AdditiveFoods It Is Found InPossible RiskRecommendation From CSPIFDA information Acesulfame K(artificial sweetener)Packets or tablets, beverage mixes, coffee or tea beverages, desserts (gelatins, puddings)Artificial sweeteners, like acesulfame K, have been linked to cancer in rats.AvoidThere is not enough evidence to conclude that artificial sweeteners are unsafe. Artificial coloringsNumerousWhile this is very controversial, some dyes are suspected of being cancer-causing.Avoid Blue 2, Green 3, Orange B, Red 3, Yellow 5, Yellow 6The FDA has a list of approved dyes. Yellow 5 can cause hives
in a very small amount of people.Aspartame (artificial sweetener)Packets or tablets, beverage mixes, coffee or tea beverages, desserts (gelatins, puddings), yogurts, a myriad of “sugar-free” productsLike other artificial sweeteners, this has been linked to cancer in rats.
AvoidPeople with phenylketonuria
should avoid sweeteners with aspartame.BHA/BHT (preservative)Added to foods that contain oil to prevent them from oxidizing and becoming rancidThese additives have also been linked to cancer in rats.AvoidBHA and BHT are approved for use in food. But, there are limits set as to how much can be used in the food product.Monosodium glutamate or MSG (flavor enhancer)Often added to certain seasonings, especially in Chinese food, in order to boost the overall flavor
This is another controversial issue. MSG may cause migraines
, chest tightness, wheezing,
attacks in certain people.
Avoid if sensitiveMSG is a considered "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS), but the additive must be clearly labeled on the product.Nitrites and nitrates (meat preservatives)Processed meats
There are claims that these preservatives increase the risk of
certain cancers, including
AvoidNitrites and nitrates are also recognized as safe.Olestra (synthetic fat replacement)Potato chips, snack foodsOlestra can affect the gastrointestinal tract, causing diarrhea and loss of important fat-soluble vitamins.AvoidFDA has approved this fat substitute.Potassium bromateBread productsThis additive may increase the risk of cancer.AvoidThe FDA has not banned this additive, but it is not used as often anymore.Saccharine (artificial sweetener)Packets, diet beverages
This artificial sweetener has also been linked to cancer in rats.AvoidThere is not enough evidence to conclude that artificial sweeteners are unsafe. SulfitesDried fruits, shrimp, wineSulfites may cause asthma attacks or even anaphylactic shock in vulnerable people.Avoid if sensitiveSulfites can be used in products, but they must be listed on the label.Sucralose (artificial sweetener)Baked goods, frozen desserts, ice cream, soft drinksNoneOkayThis sweetener is approved by the FDA.
It is unrealistic, and unnecessary, to avoid all food additives. However, do your best to avoid or cut back on the worst offenders on the list. A good rule is to choose the least processed foods. For example:
- Water instead of diet soda
- A whole banana instead of fruit snack bar
- Old fashioned oatmeal instead of a sweetened oat cereal
Here are some suggestions for limiting your intake of food additives:
- Extra additives like dyes can be avoided. If your food is not a color found in nature, you might want to consider avoiding it.
- Limit your intake of processed snack foods like chips and cookies. They can be heavy in salt, sugar, food coloring, and preservatives, and low on nutrition.
- Be aware of which processed meats are likely to contain nitrites and nitrates.
- Scan the list of ingredients before choosing a food, and if it contains too many unfamiliar ingredients, pass on it.
Center for Science in the Public Interest
Food and Drug Administration
Chemical cuisine: learn about food additives. Center for Science in the Public Interest website. Available at:
http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm. Accessed September 20, 2012.
Clinical and diagnostic approaches to adverse reactions to food and drug additives: commonly reported additives causing adverse reactions. In: Adkinson NF, Busse W, Holgate S, Middleton E, Yunginger JW, Bochner BS, eds.
Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practices.
5th ed. Mosby-Year Book, Inc.; 1998. 1183-1186.
The facts about olestra. Centers for Science in the Public Interest website. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/olestra/11cons.html. Accessed September 20, 2012.
Food additives page. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/default.htm. Updated August 11, 2012. Accessed September 20, 2012.
Potassium bromate termed a cancer threat. Center for Science in the Public Interest website. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/new/bromate.html. Published July 19, 1999. Accessed September 20, 2012.
What are food additives? FoodAdditives.org website. Available at: http://www.foodadditives.org/pdf/Food_Additives_Booklet.pdf. Accessed September 20, 2012.
Last Reviewed September 2012