Progress in Stroke PreventionEn Español (Spanish Version)
occurs when an artery in the brain becomes blocked or a blood vessel carrying blood to the brain bursts. Either way, the brain does not receive enough blood and oxygen and brain cells begin to die.
Many of the risk factors for stroke can be lowered or treated. Others, such as increasing age, family history of stroke, African American race, or prior stroke cannot be.
The most common and most preventable risk factor for stroke is
high blood pressure
. The National Stroke Association recommends all adults have their blood pressure checked every year. High blood pressure is defined as having a systolic pressure greater than 140 mm Hg and diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg. A good blood pressure is 120 mm Hg/80 mm Hg or lower. If you have a certain condition, like diabetes, your doctor may have stricter blood pressure goals for you. Reducing high blood pressure may lower your risk for stroke.
Lowering cholesterol levels with diet, exercise, and medicine may help reduce the build-up of fatty arterial plaque that can trigger a stroke. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends adults have a fasting cholesterol check at least once every five years. A desirable total cholesterol level is less than 200 mg/dl. If you have cardiovascular disease or diabetes, your doctor will have you follow stricter cholesterol guidelines.
If you have
(an irregular heart rhythm), a blood thinner such as
may be able to lower your risk for stroke. However, your doctor should monitor your condition carefully if you are taking warfarin therapy to watch for possible bleeding.
If you have diabetes, keeping your blood pressure low (eg, 120/80 mmHg) can reduce your risk of stroke. Blood pressure drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can be helpful for this purpose.
Control of blood sugar is important, as well, in decreasing stroke risk.
have twice the risk of suffering a stroke as nonsmokers. This risk is increased even more if you are also taking oral contraceptive pills. However, if you
, your risk of stroke will fall—within about five years—to the same level as someone who never smoked. There are many smoking cessation aids available today, including online support groups, nicotine patches, sprays, gum, or certain drugs.
Talk to your doctor if you need help to quit smoking.
Antiplatelet medicines make blood platelets less sticky and, therefore, less likely to form clots that can lead to strokes. Some people who have already suffered a stroke or a
transient ischemic attack
may benefit from taking an antiplatelet agent. Medicines like
or the combination of aspirin plus
(Aggrenox) may be prescribed.
If you have fatty arterial deposits in their neck, which can lead to stroke, you may benefit from
carotid artery surgery
. If you have severe arterial blockage and a history of previous stroke or TIA, this surgery may significantly reduce your risk of a second stroke.
can reduce your risk of stroke. Work with your doctor to create an exercise routine that is safe for you.
Today we are much better prepared than in the past to prevent strokes. If you are at increased risk for stroke, discuss your options with your doctor. If you do experience symptoms of a stroke, it is important to immediately undergo medical evaluation. For acute strokes, the time to diagnosis and treatment is extremely important. If you think you are having a stroke, call for emergency help right away.
American Stroke Association
National Stroke Association
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Impact of stroke (stroke statistics). American Heart and Stroke Association website. Available at:
. Updated May 1, 2012. Accessed June 12, 2012.
Stroke risk factors. American Stroke Association website. Available at:
. Accessed June 12, 2012.
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.
. 2010 October 21. Available at:
. Updated October 21, 2010. Accessed June 12, 2012.
Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ, et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: co-sponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes research Interdisciplinary Working Group.
High blood pressure. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at:
. Updated September 2011. Accessed June 12, 2012.
Am I at risk for a stroke? National Stroke Association website. Available at:
. Accessed June 12, 2012.
NCEP ATP III guidelines. EBSCO DynaMed website. http://www.dynamed.com/what.php. Accessed June 14, 2012.
Prevention of stroke. EBSCO DynaMed website. http://www.dynamed.com/what.php. Updated June 6, 2012. Accessed June 14, 2012.
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Last Reviewed June 2012