Preventive Cardiology: Beta-blockers
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Medication (name): Beta-blockers
Common Names
Examples of beta-blockers include:

  • Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)
  • Propranolol (Inderal)
  • Atenolol (Tenoretic)
  • Carvedilol (Coreg)
  • Nadolol (Corgard)
  • Labetalol (Trandate)
  • Acebutolol (Sectral)
Current Uses
Treatment
Beta-blockers may be prescribed if you have:

Prevention
Beta-blockers may be prescribed to:

  • Reduce your risk of death from heart attack
  • Protect the heart if you have coronary artery disease
  • Reduce your risk of stroke
  • Protect the heart before surgery if you are at high risk of complications
Mechanism for How It Works
Beta-blockers block the effects of adrenaline on your body's beta-receptors. This slows the nerve impulses that travel through the heart. As a result, your heart does not have to work as hard because it needs less blood and oxygen. This decreases heart rate, and blood pressure. Beta-blockers also block the impulses that can cause an arrhythmia.

Beta-blockers generally work by affecting the response to some nerve impulses. Your body has two main beta-receptors: beta 1 and beta 2. Some beta-blockers are selective, which means that they block beta 1 receptors more than they block beta 2 receptors. Beta 1 receptors are responsible for heart rate and the strength of your heartbeat. Nonselective beta-blockers block both beta 1 and beta 2 receptors. Beta 2 receptors are responsible for the function of your smooth muscles (muscles that control body functions but that you do not have voluntary control over).

Side Effects
Drug Interactions
There are many types of medicines, herbs, and supplements that can affect how beta-blockers work. Since there are many different kinds of beta-blockers, drug interactions will vary depending on the specific medicine that you are prescribed. Before you begin taking a beta-blocker, talk to your doctor about all of the prescription medicines, over-the-counter products, and supplements that you are taking.

Other Potential Concerns
If you have certain conditions, you may not be able to take some types of beta-blockers. For example, if you have asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), certain beta-blockers may make your symptoms worse. This class of drugs may also affect diabetes, heart block, peripheral arterial disease , and other conditions. If you are pregnant or nursing, it is important to discuss the risks of taking a beta-blockers with your doctor.

Talk to your doctor about your condition and any concerns that you have about taking beta-blockers.

Side Effects
Side effects include but are not limited to:

  • Drowsiness or fatigue
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Weakness or dizziness
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Loss of sex drive
  • Depression



RESOURCES:
American Heart Association

US Food and Drug Administration

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

References:
Acebutolol. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated October 22, 2012. Accessed December 13, 2012.

Atenolol. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 6, 2012. Accessed December 13, 2012.

Beta blockers. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated January 2, 2012. Accessed December 13, 2012.

Cardiac Medications. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/PreventionTreatmentofHeartAttack/Cardiac-Medications_UCM_303937_Article.jsp. Updated September 10, 2012. Accessed December 13, 2012.

2/11/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Salpeter S, Ormiston T, Salpeter E. Cardioselective beta-blockers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD003566.

Last Reviewed December 2012



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