Phosphorus
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Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body, after calcium. About 85% of phosphorus in the body exists in bone.

Functions
Phosphorus’ functions include:

  • Forming bones and teeth
  • Growing, maintaining, and repairing of cells and tissues
  • Synthesizing and activating proteins, such as enzymes and hormones
  • Maintaining acid-base balance
  • Producing, regulating, and transferring energy in the body
  • Converting carbohydrates, protein, and fat into energy
  • Important cell membrane component
  • Important in hemoglobin’s oxygen delivery function
Recommended Intake
Age Group Recommended Dietary Allowance (mg/day) 0-6 monthsNo RDA; Adequate Intake (AI) = 1007-12 monthsNo RDA; AI = 2751-3 years4604-8 years5009-18 years1,25019 years and older700Pregnancy and lactation, 18 years and younger1,250Pregnancy and lactation, 19 years and older700
Phosphorus Deficiency
Phosphorus deficiency is called hypophosphatemia. Since phosphorus is present in such a large variety of foods, dietary phosphorus deficiency is rare.

Symptoms of hypophosphatemia may include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Anemia
  • Muscle weakness
  • Bone pain
  • Rickets and osteomalacia, which is a softening of the bones
  • Increased susceptibility to infection
  • Prickling, tingling, or creeping of the skin in the arm, hands, legs, or feet
  • Loss of muscular coordination
Phosphorus Toxicity
Phosphorus toxicity is rare in people with normal kidney function. However, those with kidney problems may experience hyperphosphatemia, or elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Hyperphosphatemia can result in decreased levels of calcium in the blood and overproduction of parathyroid hormone, which can lead to bone loss.

The following table shows the upper intake levels for phosphorus. But, it's important to note that these levels are not created for people with kidney disease. If you have problems with your kidneys and are concerned about your phosphorus intake, talk to your doctor.

Age Group Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (mg/day) 0-12 monthsThis amount has not been established.1-8 years3,0009-70 years4,00070 years and older3,000Pregnancy and lactation3,500 and 4,000
Major Food Sources
Are you looking to add more phosphorus to your diet? Here are some good food sources:

FoodServing Size Phosphorus Content (mg) Skim milk8 ounces (227 grams)247Plain, nonfat yogurt8 ounces (227 grams)385Part-skim mozzarella cheese1 ounce (28 grams)131Egg 1 large104Beef3 ounces (85 grams)173Chicken 3 ounces (85 grams)155Turkey3 ounces (85 grams)173Fish (halibut)3 ounces (85 grams)242Fish (salmon)3 ounces (85 grams)252Almonds1 ounce (28 grams)134Peanuts1 ounce (28 grams)107Lentils4 ounces (113 grams)178



RESOURCES:
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

United States Department of Agriculture Choose My Plate

CANADIAN RESOURCES:
Dietitians of Canada


References
Block GA, Port FK. Re-evaluation of risks associated with hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients: Recommendations for a change in management. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;3596:1226-1237.

Cannata-Andia JB, Rodriguez-Garcia M. Hyperphosphataemia as a cardiovascular risk factor-how to manage the problem. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002; 11:16-19.

Phosphorus. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute website. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/phosphorus. Updated August 2007. Accessed April 5, 2013.

Phosphorus. Vita Guide website. Available at: http://www.vitaguide.org/phosphorus.html. Accessed April 5, 2013.

Last Reviewed April 2013



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