Medical Treatments for Sickle Cell Disease
En Español (Spanish Version)

For Managing Anemia
Blood Transfusion
Blood transfusions increase the number of circulating red blood cells, treat anemia, improve oxygen delivery to organs and tissues, and prevent strokes in high-risk patients.

You may receive whole blood or packed red blood cells. A blood test will be performed to determine your blood type and to make sure you receive compatible blood. The blood will be given to you through a needle inserted into your vein. An antihistamine is sometimes given to help prevent allergic reactions during the transfusion. Your heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure will be carefully monitored throughout the procedure.

For Attempting to Cure Sickle Cell Disease
Bone Marrow Transplant
Some medical centers are performing bone marrow transplants in an attempt to cure sickle cell disease. This involves replacing the bone marrow of a sickle cell patient with normal bone marrow from a healthy donor. There are many complications involved in this procedure, and it can be difficult to find a donor whose bone marrow characteristics match yours. If a good match isn’t found, your body will reject the new bone marrow.

If you undergo a bone marrow transplant, the first step will be to destroy your current bone marrow using high-dose chemotherapy agents. You’ll then be placed on immunosuppressive drugs to prevent your body from rejecting the new donor marrow. You’ll need to take these drugs for the rest of your life. After the donor has had bone marrow removed, it will be filtered and then dripped into your body through a tube inserted into a large vein in your chest.

For Preventing Infections
People with sickle cell anemia are more likely to get infections with certain types of bacteria. It is important that children between the ages of 2 and 5 receive the pneumococcal vaccine. This vaccine can prevent the development of pneumococcal pneumonia, a frequent complication for sickle cell patients. They should also receive all other standard immunizations, such as yearly flu shots.

For Treating an Acute Sickle Cell Crisis
While you are hospitalized for treatment of an acute sickle cell crisis, you will be given oxygen. This will help restore the amount of oxygen in your system and help stop other red blood cells from sickling.

Oxygen can be given to you through prongs at the opening of your nostrils or through a mask. The level of oxygen in your blood may be checked continuously by taping a small monitor called a pulse oximeter to your finger or toe.

For Managing Dehydration
IV Fluids
Because dehydration can worsen symptoms and complications during an acute crisis, you’ll be given fluids through an IV needle during your hospital stay. These fluids will contain a careful balance of important chemicals called electrolytes that your body needs, including sodium, potassium, and sugar.

For Monitoring the Risk of Stroke
Many centers use color doppler ultrasound for people with sickle cell to regularly check the rate of blood flow through the arteries in the neck. When blood flow speeds up there is an increased risk of stroke , which is a serious sickle cell complication. With this type of screening, blood transfusions can be given when—or possibly before—the speed of blood flow rises to potentially dangerous levels, which can decrease the risk of stroke.

Sickle cell disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated June 6, 2013. Accessed July 1, 2013.

Sickle cell disease. Nemours' website. Available at: Updated September 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.

Sickle cell disease (SCD). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Updated September 27, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.

What is sickle cell anemia? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: Updated September 28, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.

Last Reviewed May 2014

Health Information Library content is provided by EBSCO Publishing, fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.


This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.


To send comments or feedback to EBSCO's Editorial Team regarding the content please e-mail