En Español (Spanish Version)

Iron is a mineral that is found in every living cell. Iron exists in two forms—heme and nonheme. Heme iron is part of the hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules in animal tissues. Nonheme iron comes from animal tissues other than hemoglobin and myoglobin and from plant tissues. Iron is found in meats, eggs, milk, vegetables, grains, and other plant foods. The body absorbs heme iron much more efficiently than nonheme iron. Much of the iron in our diet comes from foods, such as breads and cereals that are fortified with this mineral. Worldwide, iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition.

Iron's functions include:

  • In hemoglobin, carrying oxygen to cells throughout the body
  • In myoglobin, holding oxygen within the cells, especially heart and skeletal muscle cells
  • Forming collagen, which is the major protein that makes up connective tissue, cartilage, and bone
  • Helping fight infection by synthesizing certain enzymes needed for immune function
  • Helping convert beta carotene to vitamin A
  • Helping make amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein
  • Aiding drug detoxification pathways in the liver
  • Forming part of an enzyme that is essential for the production of several neurotransmitters
  • Synthesizing cellular components that are important to metabolism
Recommended Intake
Iron needs are greatest during times of rapid growth—childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy. Also, women have higher requirements than men, to replace the iron that is lost with monthly menstruation.

Age Group Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (mg/day) MaleFemale0-6 months No RDA; Adequate Intake (AI) = 0.27 No RDA; Adequate Intake (AI) = 0.27 7-12 months11111-3 years774-8 years10109-13 years8814-18 years111519-50 years81851+ years88Pregnancyn/a27Lactation, equal to or less than 18 yearsn/a10Lactation, 19-50 yearsn/a9
Iron Deficiency
Groups of people who are susceptible to being iron deficient are:

  • Women of childbearing years
  • Teenage girls
  • Infants (depending on their diet)
  • Children
  • Low-income groups
  • People with certain gastrointestinal conditions such as celiac disease
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
There are no symptoms of iron deficiency unless you become anemic. If not corrected, iron deficiency can progress to anemia. Symptoms of anemia include:

  • Fatigue: feeling tired all the time or getting tired easily with activities you used to be able to do without difficulty
  • Pale skin, especially the pink lining to your lower eyelids, under your fingernails, or your gums
  • Glossitis (an inflamed tongue)
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Headaches
  • A ringing in the ears known as tinnitus
  • Unusual cravings for substances like ice, dirt, etc. (called pica)
Iron-deficiency anemia is usually treated by increasing iron intake through dietary sources and iron supplementation.

Iron Toxicity
At high levels, iron is toxic. And since the body has no effective means of excreting excess iron, it is possible, although not common, for iron to build up. Iron pills and supplements containing iron that are designed for adults can cause poisoning in children.

Symptoms of iron toxicity include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fainting
Major Food Sources
Food Sources of Mostly Heme Iron
FoodServing size Iron content (mg) Beef liver, cooked 3 ounces5Oysters, cooked3 ounces8Turkey breast, roasted3 ounces1Chicken, roasted, meat and skin 3 ounces1Tuna, fresh bluefin, cooked, dry heat3 ounces1
Food Sources of Nonheme Iron
FoodServing size Iron content (mg) Ready-to-eat cereal, 100% iron fortified ¾ cup18.0Lentils, boiled½ cup3Beans, kidney, mature, boiled½ cup2Tofu, raw, firm½ cup3Spinach, boiled, drained½ cup3Whole wheat bread1 slice1
Other Health Implications Related to Iron
People with the genetic disease hemochromatosis absorb excessive amounts of iron. This leads to a buildup of iron in the bloodstream and in certain organs, including the liver, muscles, pancreas, and heart. Signs and symptoms of disease usually do not appear until midlife. People of Northern European descent and men are at higher risk. Without treatment, high levels of iron can damage these organs. Treatment involves eating a diet low in iron and donating blood regularly.

Heart Disease and Cancer
Some research has suggested that excess levels of iron in the body may lead to an increased risk for heart disease or cancer. These effects may be due to how the body metabolizes iron, as opposed to how much iron is in the diet. However, the research in these areas is still inconclusive.

Tips for Increasing Your Iron Intake
The amount of iron your body absorbs varies depending on several factors. For example, your body will absorb more iron from foods when your iron stores are low and will absorb less when stores are sufficient.

In addition, certain dietary factors affect absorption:

  • Heme iron is absorbed more efficiently than nonheme iron.
  • Heme iron enhances the absorption of nonheme iron.
  • Vitamin C enhances the absorption of nonheme iron.
  • Some substances decrease the absorption of nonheme iron:
    • Oxalic acid, found in spinach and chocolate (However, oxalic acid is broken down with cooking.)
    • Phytic acid, found in wheat bran and beans (legumes)
    • Tannins, found in tea
    • Polyphenols, found in coffee
    Note: Consuming heme iron and/or vitamin C with nonheme can help compensate for these decreases.

To increase your intake and absorption of dietary iron, try the following:

  • Combine heme and nonheme sources of iron.
  • Eat foods rich in vitamin C with nonheme iron sources. Good sources of vitamin C include:
    • Bell peppers
    • Papayas
    • Oranges and orange juice
    • Broccoli
    • Strawberries
    • Grapefruit
    • Cantaloupe
    • Tomatoes and tomato juice
    • Potatoes
    • Cabbage
    • Spinach and collard greens
  • If you drink coffee or tea, do so between meals rather than with a meal.
  • Cook acidic foods in cast iron pots. This can increase iron content up to 30 times.

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

Vegetarian Resource Group

Dietitians of Canada

Dietary supplement fact sheet: iron. Office of Dietary Supplements website. Available at: Updated April 8, 2014. Accessed July 15, 2014.

Hemochromatosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated June 24, 2014. Accessed July 15, 2014.

Iron deficiency anemia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated June 9, 2014. Accessed July 15, 2014.

Last Reviewed July 2014

Health Information Library content is provided by EBSCO Publishing, fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.


This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.


To send comments or feedback to EBSCO's Editorial Team regarding the content please e-mail