Sodium
En Español (Spanish Version)


Sodium, one of the components of salt, is a mineral that is found in every cell of the body, with greatest concentrations in the fluid outside and in between cells. Sodium regulates the water content inside and outside our cells.

Functions
Sodium helps with the performance of many functions in the body. Some of them include:

  • Regulation of fluid balance and blood pressure
  • Helps transport glucose into the cell
  • Carbon dioxide transport
  • Muscle contraction
  • Nerve impulse transmission
Recommended Intake
It is recommended that people get no more than 2,300 mg of sodium per day.

Certain adults should reduce intake to 1,500 mg of sodium per day. This includes:

The Institute of Medicine has set Adequate Intake (AI) levels for sodium. This AI is the recommended daily average intake for healthy and moderately active people.

Age group Adequate Intake (AI) (mg/day) Children: 1-3 years1,000 mgChildren: 4-8 years1,200 mgChildren: 9-18 years1,500 mgAdults: 19-50 years1,500 mgAdults 51-70 years1,300 mgAdults 71 years and older1,200 mg
Too Little Sodium
Since the typical American diet is rich in sodium, deficiencies are uncommon in healthy people.

A sodium deficiency may accompany extreme body fluid loss, such as in the case of starvation, profuse sweating, or excess vomiting or diarrhea. It may also accompany kidney failure, heart failure, chronic liver disease, or use of some diuretics.

Too Much Sodium
High sodium intakes have been correlated with elevated blood pressure and edema. Increasing dietary salt intake might also raise the risk of developing kidney stones.

Major Food Sources
Table salt is the major source of dietary sodium—about 1/3 to 1/2 of the sodium we consume is added during cooking or at the table. Fast foods and commercially processed foods, which are canned, frozen, bagged, boxed, or instant, also add a significant amount of sodium to the typical American diet. These include:

  • Beef broth
  • Ketchup
  • Commercial soups
  • French fries
  • Gravies
  • Olives
  • Pickles
  • Potato chips
  • Salted snack foods
  • Sandwich meats
  • Sauces
  • Sauerkraut
  • Tomato-based products
Sodium occurs naturally in:

  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Meats
  • Milk products
  • Poultry
  • Shellfish
  • Softened water
Reading Food Labels
All food products contain a Nutrition Facts label, which states a food's sodium content. The following terms are also used on food packaging:

Food Label TermMeaningSodium freeLess than 5 mg/servingVery low sodium35 mg or less/servingLow sodium140 mg or less/servingReduced sodium25% reduction per serving in sodium content from original productLight in sodium or lightly saltedAt least 50% less sodium than the original productUnsalted, no salt added, without added saltProcessed without salt when salt normally would be used in processing
Tips for Lowering Your Sodium Intake
  • Read the nutrition label to find out how much sodium is in the foods you are buying.
  • Gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. Your taste buds will adjust to less salt.
  • Taste your food before you salt it.
  • Substitute flavorful ingredients for salt in cooking, such as garlic, oregano, lemon or lime juice, and other herbs, spices, and seasonings.
  • Opt for fresh foods instead of processed ones. For example, select fresh or plain frozen vegetables and meats instead of those canned with salt.
  • Look for low sodium or reduced sodium, or no salt added versions of such foods as: canned vegetables; vegetable juices; dried soup mixes; bouillon; condiments; snack foods; crackers and bakery products; canned soups; butter, margarine; cheeses; canned tuna; and processed meats.
  • Cook and eat at home. Adjust your recipes to gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. If some of the ingredients already contain salt, such as canned soup, canned vegetables, or cheese, you do not need to add more salt.
  • Cook rice, pasta, and hot cereals without salt or with less salt than the package calls for. Flavored rice, pasta, and cereal mixes generally already contain added salt.
  • Limit your use of condiments such as soy sauce, dill pickles, salad dressings, and packaged sauces.
  • When dining out, order a low-salt meal or ask the chef not to add salt to your meal.
  • Also when dining out, ask for sauces and dressings to be served on the side, so that you can control the amount that you add.



  • RESOURCES:
    Eat Right—Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Choose My Plate—US Department of Agriculture

    CANADIAN RESOURCES:
    Dietitians of Canada


    References:
    Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 23, 2015. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Tips to eat less salt and sodium. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/healthdisp/pdf/tipsheets/Tips-to-Eat-Less-Salt-and-Sodium.pdf. Published December 2013. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Salt. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/salt/index.htm. Updated September 9, 2014. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Salt and sodium. 10 tips to help you cut back. Choose My Plate—US Department of Agriculture website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/downloads/TenTips/DGTipsheet14SaltAndSodium.pdf. Published June 2011. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Sodium and salt. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyDietGoals/Sodium-Salt-or-Sodium-Chloride_UCM_303290_Article.jsp. Updated January 12, 2015. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Sodium chloride. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 28, 2015. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Sodium in your diet: using the nutrition facts label to reduce your intake. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm315393.htm. Updated June 20, 2014. Accessed February 9, 2015.

    Last Reviewed February 2015



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